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The World’s Largest Pharmaceutical Corps
 
GlaxoSmithKline – (UK), largest overall; began in Philadelphia, PA. USA; several mergers with Beckman Instruments (1982), Beecham (1989) and GlaxoWellcome in 2000 make GSK the world leader. https://citizen2009.wordpress.com/glaxosmithkline/
Teva – (Israel)meaning “nature” in Hebrew;  the largest producer of generic drugs established in Jerusalem in 1901, grown through acquisitions that made it Israel’s biggest corporation by the 1970s; specializes in proprietary products to treat neurological diseases; subsidiaries and partnerships in veterinary medicines. https://citizen2009.wordpress.com/teva/
Roche – (Basel, Switzerland), established as Hoffmann-LaRoche in 1896. In 1905 created an American subsidiary based on vitamin sales. Roche is at the forefront of genetic engineering and diagnostic products worldwide; acquired 100% of Genentech in March 2009; partner/owner with Chugai https://citizen2009.wordpress.com/roche/
CIBA – (Basel, Switz.) founded by Alexander Clavel as a dye-maker in 1859; merged with J.R. Geigy in 1971 and in 1996 established Novartis from a merger with Sandoz.
Novartis – (Basel, Switz.), #1 in revenues in 2008 ($53 billion) and #3 in sales; the larger entity of CIBA and Sandoz which also holds a 33% interest in Roche https://citizen2009.wordpress.com/novartis/
Sandoz – (Basel, Switz.), founded 1886 as an industrial dye-maker; produced saccharin in 1899; spun off the specialty chemicals division and sold it to BASF; acquired food products manuf. in its growth which were partially divested in the merger with CIBA; famous for Albert Hofmann’s discovery of LSD
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Hoechst AG (Germany) – largest chemical manufacturer in the world; historic member of the 1925 I.G. Farben cartel; founded by Eugen Lucius in 1863 as an aniline dye-maker near Frankfurt; producer of Novocaine, Salvarsan (syphilis treatment) and insulin. In 1995, Hoechst acquired Marion-Merrell-Dow which made it #3 in pharmaceuticals at the time http://www.answers.com/topic/hoechst-ag
Imperial Chemicals Inc. – (UK), ICI Pharmaceutical was founded in 1957 as a division of the giant ICI which was established by merger in 1926. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_Chemical_Industries , belonging to the Dutch conglomerate Akzo Nobel. ICI owns AstraZeneca which bought MedImmune, the makers of “FluMist
Pfizer – (USA), established in Brooklyn, New York in 1849 as a maker of citric acid; bought out Upjohn, Parke-Davis, Warner Lambert, Pharmacia (owned by Monsanto) and Wyeth (formerly Sterling Drug, the American subsidiary of I.G. Farben). In 2006, sales were at $48.4 billion. https://citizen2009.wordpress.com/pfizer/
SanofiPasteur – (France) world’s largest subsidiary vaccine-maker for Sanofi-Aventis, headquartered in Lyon, France with production in Swiftwater, Pennsylvania; maker of “FluZone” for the U.S. military.
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SanofiAventis – (France), created by a merger in 2004 between Aventis(1999 merger of Rhone-Poulenc and Hoechst AG) and Sanofi;  from the original founding of the Merieux Biological Institute in Lyon in 1897. Sanofi-Aventis became the 3rd largest pharmaceutical after its creation behind GlaxoSmithKline and Pfizer. https://citizen2009.wordpress.com/sanofi-aventis/
Wyeth – (USA)  renamed from Sterling Drug Inc. (I.G.Farben) on March11,2002; merged with Pfizer in 2009. In 1932 Wyeth Chemical Company was acquired by American Home Products, Sterling’s holding company. AHP owned major processed food brands and grew Wyeth large making penicillin and polio vaccines for the USgovt; between 1930 and 2000, Wyeth (Sterling-Winthrop-AHP) acquired Ayerst, American Cyanimid and LeDerle.
Merck – (USA), founded by George Merck and Theodore Weicker in 1889 New Jersey; was the world’s largest producer of vaccines (now behind Sanofi-Pasteur), merged with Sharp & Dohme in 1953, acquired Medco Containment Services in 1993 and became the largest internet pharmacy. In Nov. of 2009, Merck merged with ScheringPlough. George W. Merck is infamous for directing Germ Warfare programs at Fort Detrick for the War Research Service. During the 1990s Merck was the largest pharmaceutical operation in the world, still ranking in the top 7. https://citizen2009.wordpress.com/merck/
Bayer I.G. – (Germany), began as a dye company and consolidated into FarbenFabriken in 1881 [I.G. Farben]. In 1894, chemist Felix Hoffmann joined the staff and in 1897, Bayer made the first commercial aspirin. [see Sterling Drug Inc.] https://citizen2009.wordpress.com/sterling-drug-inc/
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Takeda Pharmaceutical Co. – largest in Japan and Asia, founded 1781; incorporated 1925 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Takeda_Pharmaceutical_Company . Takeda entered the US market in 1977 with a joint venture partnership with Abbott Laboratories called TAP Pharmaceuticals; in 2003 Takeda acquired Syrrx of San Diego, CA; in 2008 Takeda acquired Millenium Pharmaceuticals of Cambridge, Mass. http://www.answers.com/topic/millennium-pharmaceuticals-inc 
 BristolMyersSquibb, Princeton/Trenton NJ, USA, created by a merger in Nov. of 1989 of New Jersey-based originals Squibb (est. in 1858) and Bristol-Myers (est. in 1887); owner of Mead Johnson; http://www.answers.com/topic/bristol-myers-squibb-co ; CEO James M. Cornelius http://www.bms.com/ourcompany/leadership/Pages/james_cornelius_mbio.aspx
‘BMY’ “was the only pharmaceutical company to invest in anticancer drugs” in the 1970s, under the leadership of CEO Richard Gelb (from the acquired Clairol Co.) –Clairol haircolor was cited as carcinogenic– and more recently >>”In 1996, Genzyme Transgenics Corp., working with Bristol-Myers, announced the birth of a genetically altered goat, which carried the gene for an anticancer drug. Beginning in 1996, Bristol-Myers scientists collaborated with BioServe Technologies, a NASA-funded non-profit, to explore the use of space for developing commercial products.”
Former FBI Director (19932001) Louis J. Freeh, director   http://www.bms.com/ourcompany/leadership/Pages/louis_freeh_bio.aspx,  biography of Freeh http://www.answers.com/topic/louis-freeh;
Former Dean of Duke University Medical School(2001-2007), R. Sanders Williams, director http://www.bms.com/ourcompany/leadership/Pages/rsanders_williams_bio.aspx
Former vice-chair of Ernst&Young, Michael Grobstein, director http://www.bms.com/ourcompany/leadership/Pages/michael_grobstein_bio.aspx
January 2010, “TRENTON, N.J. (AP) — Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., the world’s No. 15 drugmaker by revenue, reports fourth-quarter earnings” http://finance.yahoo.com/news/BristolMyers-now-a-pure-apf-3938046222.html?x=0&.v=3
Johnson and Johnson – (USA), incorporated in 1887 as Mead Johnson; headquartered in New Brunswick, New Jersey; owns over 230 subsidiaries; member of the “Green Power Partnership” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johnson_and_Johnson 
Chairman Thomas H. Kean [N.J. Governor, 9-11 Commission]
Connected to the 2001 Anthrax Attack? >>”Johnson & Johnson & Jersey” www.thirdring.wordpress.com/johnson-johnson-jersey/
Eli Lilly – (USA) family company founded in Indianapolis in 1876 by Col. Eli Lilly; first US makers of insulin from swine and cattle in 1923; introduced Lilly’s liver pills in 1930; grew wealthy from penicillin in WWII; made 60% of the Salk polio vaccine; makers of Prozac and thimerosal http://www.answers.com/topic/eli-lilly-co 
Eli Lilly’s malfeasance [LSD, MKULTRA, the ‘cancer profit cycle’, etc.] http://www.whale.to/a/eli_lilly.html
G.D. Searle – (USA) of Omaha Nebraska incorporated in 1908 Chicago; made the first birth control pill, Enovid, in 1960; in 1975 Donald H. Rumsfeld became CEO/pres.; Nutrasweet/aspartame introduced in 1981; acquired as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Monsanto in Oct. 1985; maker of the blockbuster Celebrex http://www.answers.com/topic/g-d-searle-co https://citizen2009.wordpress.com/monsanto/
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CSL Behring – (Australia), begun in Marburg, Germany by the Swiss, Emil von Behring; headquartered in King of Prussia,Pennsylvania  http://www.csl.com.au/s1/cs/auhq/1187378853379/content/1196562730282/content.htm
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Baxter International – (USA) headquartered in Deerfield, Illinois; founded in 1931 by Dr. Davis Baxter to make intravenous (IV) and blood products; bought in 1935 by Ralph Falk. Distribution of Baxter products was achieved by partnership with American Hospital Supply Corporation, which it acquired in 1985. In 1945, due to WWII, Baxter established “the most outstanding growth record in American industry” history under the leadership of CEO William B. Graham. Baxter specialized in kidney dialysis equipment developed by Dutch doctor Willem Kolff in 1956. In 1995, it opened the first of several plants in China; in 2000, acquired North American Vaccine; in 2001 contracted to make smallpox vaccine in a joint venture with Acambis, Inc. (Acambis was bought by Sanofi-Pasteur/2009). In June of 2009 , Baxter announced it would be first to have a ready H1N1 vaccine http://www.baxter.com/about_baxter/company_profile/sub/history.html
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Gilead (USA) – founded in 1987, Foster City, California (S.F. Bay area), specialized in HIV-AIDS treatments; 2008 revenues over $5 billion http://www.gilead.com/corporate_overview  Current CEO/Chairman, John C. Martin who is also on the Boards of UC School of Global Health, Gen-Probe Incorporated, and the President’s Advisory Council on HIV-AIDS.
Gen-Probe Incorporated, diagnostics est. 1983  http://www.gen-probe.com/about/corporate_history.aspx
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Genentech (USA) – founded 1976, San Francisco, CA; leading pioneer of biotechnology; bought by Roche in Mar2009; employs over 11,000 in Calif., Spain and Singapore http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genentech
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Applied Biosystems (USA) – founded 1981, SanFrancisco area; merged with Invitrogen in June 2008, Carlsbad Calif. (San Diego area). In 1993; acquired by PerkinElmer (PE Corporation) with a sister company named Celera Genomics; by 1995, Applied Biosystems was the world’s largest manufacturer of PCR equipment and reagents. In 2000, after internal restructuring, the parent company named changed to Applera (applied+celera). Longtime chief Mike Hunkapiller retired in 2004 and was replaced by Cathy Burzik; the 2008 merger with Invitrogen incited another name change to Life Technologies. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Applied_Biosystems
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Henry Schein Inc. – is the largest distributor of healthcare products and services to office-based practitioners[1]. It is a Fortune 500® company and a member of the NASDAQ 100® Index. The company has four business groups – Dental, Medical, International and Technology which operate through a centralized and automated distribution network, reaching customers in more than 200 countries[2]. The Company also provides technology offerings for dental, medical and veterinary professionals, including practice management software and electronic health record solutions. Headquartered in Melville, N.Y., Henry Schein employs more than 12,500 people and has operations in the United States, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The Company has affiliates in Iceland, Israel, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates[3]. (ref.wikipedia) http://henryschein.com  , http://www.answers.com/topic/henry-schein-inc  2008 revenues, $6.4 billion
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APOTEX – Ontario, Canada; Canada’s largest producer of generic drugs; owns 61% of Cangene (US BioShield funding contractor); CEO/Chairman, Bernard Sherman http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apotex
“Bernard Sherman controls Apotex Group which includes Apotex Holdings Inc, Apotex Inc, Apotex Research Inc. and Apotex Holdings Inc. indirectly through the Bernard and Honey Sherman Family Trust, of which he is the Trustee. Dr. Sherman is a director and President of Sherman Foundation and as such controls its holdings indirectly. At October 27, 2005, Dr. Sherman held or controlled 80% of Cangene’s common stock”.

“Cangene Corporation owns 100% of the voting securities of Cangene U.S. Incorporated (“Cangene U.S.”), which is incorporated in the State of Delaware in the United States. Cangene U.S. owns 100% of the voting securities of Chesapeake Biological Laboratories, Inc. (..”CBL”, Baltimore), which is incorporated in the state of Maryland…Cangene U.S. also owns 100% of Biotherapeutic Laboratories, Inc. in [Van Nuys] California and Mid-“Florida Biologicals, Inc. that has operations in [Altamonte Springs] Florida and [Frederick] Maryland. Cangene operates an office in the U.K., Cangene Europe Limited (U.K.)” http://www.cangene.com/pdf/2005/aif05.pdf

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Cambrex  -(USA HQ New Jersey); “is one of several bio-manufacturing companies in the Baltimore area, including Chesapeake Biological Laboratories Inc., which is owned by Canada’s Cangene Corp., and UPM Pharmaceuticals Inc., which is based in the University of Maryland, Baltimore’s BioPark.” http://baltimore.bizjournals.com/baltimore/stories/2006/10/30/story2.html; Oct.2006 sold to Basel Switz.-based Lonza Group Ltd — “Cambrex’s Baltimore location opened in 1996 as the Maryland BioCenter. It was funded with $18 million in state and federal grants and land donated by Baltimore City and $3 million in private funding….”Lonza is selling off its chemical businesses and transforming itself into an international biotech giant. The company, which reported profit of $148 million on sales of nearly $2 billion last year, is projecting $2.4 billion in sales for 2006.”…”Lonza works for both large and small pharmaceutical and biotech companies around the world. The company says it has contracts with more than half of the 20 largest pharmaceutical companies worldwide.”

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Lonza Group – Basel, Switzerland http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lonza_Group ; indicated from this article posted in November of 2001 that Lonza Biologics “is the “world’s leader in contract devlopment and production of therapeutic antibodies and proteins.”  http://www.lonza.com/group/en/company/news/archive/lonza0/cambridge.html

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HealthcareINDUSTRY

Siemens Corporation – “Europe’s largest engineering conglomerate”  Berlin/Munich/Ehrlingen http://w1.siemens.com/about/en/footer/corporate_info.htm; http://www.answers.com/topic/siemens-corporation; Siemens AG bases 9 of its global businesses in the USA which is its largest market ; Siemens USA, CEO Eric Spiegel, formerly with Booz & Company, authored the book “Energy Shift: Game-Changing Options for Fueling the Future” http://www.tuck.dartmouth.edu/today/portfolio/spiegel.html

Siemens Medical Solutions http://www.medical.siemens.com

Siemens Healthcare, “The healthcare industry’s leading supplier of information technology solutions”  https://www.smed.com/default.asp

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Written by citizen2009

November 16, 2009 at 10:26 pm

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